????????

被豢养的罂粟???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????? '????????'? '????????' ??? '????????' ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????????? '???????' ?? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????

Pages

Saturday, 17 October 2015

"Colour Plate for MCCB"
.
?????? oral ?????????????...chat box ???????...
preferential trip ??????????????????...
???????????? post ???????..."Colour Plate for MCCB" ???? ?????????????????????)
.
main switch board MSB ?????? feeder panel ??????..
MCCB ?????? molded-case circuit breakers ??????..
MCB ?????? miniature circuit breaker ???..
?????????????????
.
circuit breaker ??????????...
overload ????????? short circuit ???????..
?????????????????? electrical circuit ????????..
?????????????????????????????????????????..
????????????????????????? '?????' ????????..
?????????????..
"circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit"..???????..
???????????????
.
MCCB ??? MCB ?????..
low voltage circuit breaker ???????????..
1, 000 VAC ??????????????..
?????????????????
.
main switch board MSB ??? feeder panel ??????..
???????????? MCCB ??? MCB ??????..
??????????????????????? ?????? breaker ??????..
????????? ?????? breaker ??????? ????????????..
?????? breaker ?????? ???????? ???..
?????? breaker ?????????? ???????????..
colour plate ??????? ?????????..
??????????????????????????
.
main switch board ??? front panel...
?????????????????????????????..
??????????? ??????? electrical circuit ?????????..
??????? electrical motor circuit ???..
?????????????????????? ????????????????????????
.
???????? colour plate ?????????..
????????????????????? MCCB ??? MCB ?????????..
shut tripping coil ?????????????????????..
circuit breakers ???????????..
breaker ????????? wire ??????? (?) ?..
????????????????? main switch board ???..
???????????????????????? ???????????????
.
colour plates ????????..
emergency stop, preferential trip ???..
sequential start ???????? represent ??????..
?????????????????
.
(?) - Emergency Stop - ???????? ??????????..
??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????..
??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????
.
????? ????????????????? ?????????????????????..
engine room blowers fans ???? purifiers ???..
fuel oil transfer pump, boilers ??? incinerators..???????? ???????????????????????????????
.
??????????????????????????..
???????????????????????? ???????????????????..
??????????????? ????????????????????????..
?????????????..
emergency stop push button ????????..
?????????????????..
??????????????????????????????????..
?????????????????????????????????
.
???????????? emergency stop push button ????????..
engine room entrance ???????????????????????..
wheel house ?? control console ??????????..
?????????????????????
.
emergency stop ??????????????..
?????????????????????????????????..
????????????????????????..
main electrical supply source MCCB ???..
MCB ??????? MSB ????????????????..
???????? red colour plate ?????..
????????????????????????????????
.
???????? red colour plate ????? ????????????..
MCCB ??? MCB ?????? shut tripping coil..
???????????? electrical switch ???????????..
????????????? shut coil ???? electrical power..
??????????????? breaker "ON" ?????????..
switches ?????????????????
.
emergency stop push button ??..
"NC" ?????? normally closed contact ????????..
 MCCB ??? MCB ?????? shunt coil ??? ?????..
??????? parallel ?????????? coil ????..
electrical power ?????????????????
.
???????????????????????..
emergency stop push button ???..
"?????" ?????????? NC contact ??..
open ????????????? shut coil ??????????????????..
electrical power ???? ????????????????????????..
MCCB ??? MCB ?????? "trip" ?????? "?????" ????..
emergency stop ??????????????..
?????????????????????????????????..
????????????????????????..
main electrical supply source ???..
????????????????????
.
(?) - Preferential Trip - Preferential Trip ????????..
????????????? generator protection system ???..
?????????????? ?????????????????????????????
.
generator protection system ??????..
generator ??? "main breaker" ????????????..
?????????????????
.
main breaker ??????????..
air circuit breaker (ACB) ???..
oil circuit breaker (OCB) ???????..
????????????????????????..
generator protection system ????????..
over current protection,..
reverse power protection ???..
under voltage protection ??????????????
.
over current protection ??? preferential trip,..
instantaneous trip ??? over load trip ???????..
(?) ?????????? ??????
.
generator ??? load "???" ?????????????..
generator ????????????????? "???"..
???????????? "load" ???..
??????????????????????..
over load ?????????? over current..
??????????????????????????
.
?????????? ??????????????? "load" ???????..
?????????? ?????? essential and eon-essential..
?????????? ???????????????????????..
??????????????????? "??????" ????????
.
?????????????????????????..
'inverse definite minimum time'? ??????..
?????????????????????????..
?????????????????????????????????????????..
"Preferential Trip" ???????????????
.
Preferential Trip ????? non-essential load ??????..
"??????" ???????? 1st Preferential Trip,..
2nd Preferential Trip, 3rd Preferential Trip..
????????? ????????????????????..
(?) ??????? (??) ????????? (??) ??????..
?????????? ???? ????? '?????' ????????????
.
preferential trip ??????????????..
?????????????????????????????????..
????????????????????????..
main electrical supply source MCCB ???..
MCB ??????? MSB ????????????????..
1st preferential trip ???????????? orange colour plate..
2nd preferential trip ???????? yellow colour plate..
?????????? ????????? ???????????????????????
.
MSB ???? preferential trip relay ??????..
"NC" normally closed contact ???..
preferential trip ??? ??????????? MCCB ???..
MCB ?????? shut coil '??' ???????..
"???????" parallel ?????????? coil ????..
electrical power ?????????????????
.
preferential trip relay ???..
"NC" normally closed contact ??..
open position ?????????????????????..
shut coil ??????????????????..
electrical power ???..
????????????????????????..
MCCB ??? MCB ?????? "trip" ??????..
"?????" ???????????????????
.
Generator ??? main circuit breaker ???..
current setting ???? (85 - 95 %) ????..
?????????????????????? setting ????????????..
1st preferential trip relay ???????????????
.
1st preferential trip ????? "?????" ????????..
??? current setting ?????????????..
????????????????????????? 2nd preferential trip ?????..
????? "?????" ????????
.
?????? power distribution system ??????..
1st preferential trip ??? 2nd preferential trip..
????????? 3rd preferential trip ?????..
?????????????????????????????
.
accommodation air conditioning plant,.
provision refrigeration plant,..
galley exhaust fan, galley power distribution,..
toilet and bath room exhaust fan ???????..
Preferential Trip ??? ???????????..
non-essential load ????????..
??????????????????????
.
(?) - Sequential Start - Sequential Start ????????...
????????????? electric motor starter..
????????????????????? ????????..
?????????????????????
.
electric motor ????? '?' ???????????????????..
start push button ???? ??????????????????..
start push button ???..
"NO" normally opened contact ??..
close position ????????????..
main magnetic contactor ????..
energized ??????????
.
??????????? start push button ???..
"NO" normally opened contact ???..
??????? parallel ?????????..
main magnetic contactor ??..
 "NO" normally opened - auxiliary contact..
(a contact) ??????? close position ??????????????
.
start push button ????? '??' ???????? ??????..
??????????????? main magnetic contactor ???..
auxiliary contact (a contact) ??..
close position ???? ????????..
completed circuit ??????????..
?????????????? electric motor..
???????????????????????????
.
Sequential Start motor starter ??????????..
start push button ???..
"NO" normally opened contact ???..
main magnetic contactor ??..
"NO" normally opened - auxiliary contact..
(a contact) ????? ??????? parallel..
?????????????..
main magnetic contactor ???????..
"NC" normally closed - auxiliary contact..
(b contact) ?????????????..
"???????" parallel ????????????
.
?????????????????????? generator..
"???" ????????????????..
Main Breaker "?????" ??????????????????.. ??????????????????????????????..
power re-store ?????..
?????????????????????????????????..
'start push button' '?????' ??..
electric motor ?????????????????????????..
Sequential Start motor starter ??..
???????????????????????????
.
MSB ?? Sequential Start ???..
MCCB ??? "ON" ???????????..
???????????????? electric power ??..
Sequential Start motor starter ??..
main magnetic contactor ????????..
"NC" normally closed - auxiliary contact..
(b contact) ????? ????????????????..
main magnetic contactor ???..
energized ????????..
?????????????????????????????????????
.
colour plate for MCCB ??????..
Sequential Start ??? ???????????..
green colour plate ?????..
MSB ??????????????????
.
Sequential Start MCCB ??..
shunt coil ????????????????????????..
breaker ??????????
.
????????????..
generator sea water cooling pump..
????????? auxiliary engine sea water..
cooling pump ??? motor starter ???..
Sequential Start starter ?????..
??????????????????????

Monday, 3 August 2015

"Why Marine Engineers are Concerned ?"


"Slow Streaming" ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????
?? post ??? "Slow Steaming" ??? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????

"Slow Steaming" ?????????? ??????????????????? fuel consumption ??? ??????????????????? ?????? CO2, NOx and Sox emissions ???? ??????????? ??????????????????????? process of deliberately ?????? ???????? ??????????????????????????????????????
"Slow Steaming" ?? ?????????????? ship owners ?????? ?????????????? ship charterers ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????????????????????? carbon emissions ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????????????? ???????????

??????????????????? financial recession ??????? ????????????????????? ????????????????????????
??????????????????????????? ??????????? ????????????????????????? ??????????
"Slow Steaming" ??? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????????????...

(?) - "slow streaming" ??????????????? crank case ??? ??????? ??????? under piston inspections ?????? scavenge inspections ??????????? ?????? frequent and thorough inspection ?????? ???????????? ????????????

(?) - slow steaming ???? ??????????????? cylinder liners ??????
over lubrication ??????????????????????? over lubrication ?? under lubrication ???????? engine ??? ????????????????????????? ????? main engine ??? load dependent cylinder lubrication system ???? ?????????????????????????????? lubrication rate ???
optimal value ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????????

(?) - slow steaming ??????? turbocharger ??? ????????? ??????????????????? fouling ???? ??????????????????

(?) - fouling ?????????? turbocharger ??? ???????????
?????????? designed range air flow ???? ???????
??????????? deposits ?????????? ???????????????

(?) - carbon deposits ????? injectors compromises ????
?? '???' ?????????? performance ???????????????

(?) - slow streaming ??????? exhaust gas economizer ??? fouling ??????????????? capacity ????????? soot fire ?????????????????

(?) - scavenge air pressure ??????????????? improper combustion ?????????????????

(?) - fuel ??? improper atomization ??????????????????????? impingement ??????????? ?????????????????????????? piston ???????? ?????????????????

(?) - engine ??? ?????????????????? carbon deposits ??? '???' ??????????????? maintenance intervals ???????? '???' ????? ??????????????

(??) - slow steaming ??????? exhaust gas temperatures ??????????????? ????? 250 deg C ?????????? ????????????????? low temperature corrosion ???????? ?????????????????

(??) - slow steaming ?? peak compression pressure ???????? ?????????????????

(??) - slow steaming ????? engine ???? ????????????????????????????????? full load ????????????????????????????? imminent ???????????
???????????????????? ????????????? overhanging ???????? ?????????????????

(??) - piston ring pack ?????? efficiency ???????? ????????????????
scavenge ??? piston ??? ???????????????????
deposits ??? ??????????????????????

(??) - scavenge fires ??????????? ?????????????????????? scavenge ??? under piston area ??????? draining ?????????? ????????????????????

(??) - carbon deposits ?????????? ????????????????
heat transfer ??????????????? engine ??? ??????????????????? thermal stresses ??? ?????????????????

(??) - economizer ??? efficiency ???????????????????
oil fired boiler ??? ?????????????????????????????????

Reference and Credit to : Ship & Bunker - Maersk Line : Moving Away From Slow - Steaming Would Require a Fundamental Change to the Network, Thursday January 22, 2015., When Will be the END of “Slow - steaming” ? Ma Shuo, MPA Visiting Professor, Public Lecture @ NTU, 30 September 2014., Marine Insight © The Guide to Slow Steaming on Ships, Chief Engineer Mohit Sanguri, December 2012.

Remark : All publications herein this pages are for use of educational purpose only. The owner of this pages is not responsible for the consequences in case of violation to copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights of any third party.

Wednesday, 14 August 2013

"Port State Control Inspection (?)"

'PSC Inspection' ?????? 'Port State Control Inspection' ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????? certificate of competency ???????? verifying ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ??????? condition of the ship ??? ????????????????????? ?????????? ?????? equipments ????? ???????????????????????????? international conventions ?????? ????????????? SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW ???????? ???????? regulations ?????? compliance ?????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ???????? manned and operated ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? applicable international law ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????

(????) ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? labour conditions ????????????????? ILO ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????????????  accordance ?????? ???????????????????????? ???????? audit ????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? Netherlands ??????? The Hague ????????? ??????????? ???????????? 'memorandum' ??? ?????????????????????????


Fig. M.T  Amoco Cadiz (PoR : Liberia, IMO number : 7336422, LOA :  334.02 m, Beam :  51.06 m, Draught : 19.80 m, Single screw, 22,700 kW diesel engine.)

????????????? 'Amoco Cadiz' ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????? safety and pollution ?????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????? 'The Hague memorandum' ???? ??????????????????????? (????) ????????????? port state control inspection ???????? Paris MoU ????????????? Paris Memorandum of Understanding ????  ????? (??) ?????????? Canada ????????????? ????? ?????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? flag state ?? ?????????????? ????????????? flags of convenience ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? failure ?????? flags of convenience ??? ?????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? international conventions ?????? ?????? ?????????????  SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW ???????? ???????? regulations ?????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????  compliance ????????? ????  port state control inspection ?????? ???????????????????? ???????? ???????????? rectification ???? ?????????????? classification societies ?????? survey and certification duties ?????? '????????????????' ?????? ???????????????????????

'Port state control agreements' - Paris MoU ??? ????????????? ?????????? regional MOUs ?????????  Pacific Ocean region  ???????? Tokyo MOU , South and Central America  region ????? Acuerdo Latino or Acuerdo de Vi?a del Mar, Caribbean ???????? Caribbean MoU,  ??????????????????? Mediterranean MoU, ????????????????????? Indian Ocean MoU,  West and Central Africa ????? Abuja MoU, ????????????????? Black Sea MoU ???  Persian Gulf ????? Riyadh MoU ???????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????  

Tokyo MoU ???? Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Fiji, Hong Kong(China), Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, The Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, Vanuatu ??? Vietnam ???????? ????????????? (??) ?????????? ?????? ??????????????????????? Acuerdo Latino or Acuerdo de Vi?a del Mar ????????? Acuerdo de Vi?a del Mar Agreement ??????????? The Latin American Agreement on Port State Control of Vessels ???????? Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay ??? Venezuela  ???????? ????????????? (??) ?????????? ?????????????????????????????

Caribbean MoU ???? Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the Cayman Islands, Cura?ao, Cuba, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, the Netherlands, St. Kitts and Nevis, Suriname ??? Trinidad and Tobago ???????? ????????????? ???????????????????????????? Mediterranean MOU ????????? Mediterranean MoU on PSC ???????? Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia ??? Turkey Venezuela  ???????? ????????????? (??) ?????????? ?????????????????????????????

Paris MoU ??? 'PSC Inspection' ?????? 'Port State Control Inspection' ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? (????) ????????????? deficiencies ?????? ????????????????????? (??, ???) ????????????????? detentions ?????? ???????? ????????????????????????? (??, ??) ?????? ????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????


 Fig. Signatories to the Paris MOU (blue), Tokyo MOU (red), Indian Ocean MOU (green), Mediterranean MOU (dark green), Acuerdo Latino (yellow), Caribbean MOU (olive), Abuja MOU (dark red), Black Sea MOU (cyan) and Riyadh MOU (navy).

?????? Indian Ocean MoU ???? Australia, Bangladesh, Djibouti, Eritrea, France(La Reunion Island), India, Iran, Kenya, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Oman, Seychelles, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania ??? Yemen ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? Abuja MoU ?????? West and Central Africa MoU ??????? Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Congo, Cote d’ Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Liberia, Mauritania, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, S?o Tomé and Príncipe, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia ??? Togo ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????

????????????????? Black Sea MoU ?????? Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control ??????? Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey ??? Ukraine ???????? ????????????? (?) ?????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? Persian Gulf ????? Riyadh MoU ??? Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia ??? UAE ???????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????????

???????????????????? ??????? MoU ?????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????  United States waters ?????? ????????????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????? international conventions ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? regulations ?????? applicable U.S. laws ?????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ' United States Coast Guard' ??? ??????????????

'Detention of ship under Port State Control' - deficiencies ??????? minor infractions ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????? minor violation ????????? minor infringement of a law ?????? ???????????????  ?????????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? (??) ????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? rectification ???? ??????????????????????????? ??????? under specific conditions ?????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ship arrives at the next port ????????????  ???????????? ???????????????? 

???????? port state inspection ????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????  ?????????????????? rectification ????  ??????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? major infractions ?????? ???????????????????? detentions ?????? ???????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????

'Paris MoU NIR' - Paris MoU New Inspection Regime ??? recently-implemented system ?????? (????) ??????? ????????? (?) ????????? ??????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ???????????? vessel's risk profile ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? frequency ??????? ?????????????????????? risk profiles ???? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? previous inspection results, ???????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? number of detentions, ???????? ????????????????????? ????????? management company performance, ??????????????????????? ????????????? ??????? flag state performance ??? ?????????????? statutory certificate ????????????? ????????????? ??????? classification society performance ???????? ???????? low, medium ???  high ??????? ??????? ????????????????

Paris MoU NIR ???? ????????????????? ??????????????? Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,  Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden ??? United Kingdom ????????????? ?????????? (??) ?????????????????? Paris MOU ???? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????????????? pre-arrival reporting obligations ?????? ??????????????????????? ???????????? 

pre-arrival reporting obligations ???? (??) ??????????????????????????????? (??) ???????????????????????????? ???????? ??????????????????????? expanded inspection ?????? ???????????? (??) ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? 


Reference and image credit to : "Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control in the Asia-Pacific Region", as amended 20 November 2008. Available from: http://www.tokyo-mou.org/ ., "Latin American Agreement on Port State Control of Vessels (Vi?a del Mar, 1992)", as amended 2008. Available from: http://www.acuerdolatino.int.ar/ ., "Caribbean Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control", 1996. Available from: http://www.caribbeanmou.org., "Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control in the Mediterranean Region", as amended 27 November 2006. Available from: http://www.medmou.org., "Indian Ocean Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control", as amended October 2003. Available from: http://www.iomou.org., "Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control for the West & Central African Region", 30 October 1998. Available from: http://www.abujamou.org., "Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control", as amended 01 January 2006. Available from: http://www.bsmou.org., "Riyadh Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control in the Gulf Region", June 2005. Available from: http://www.riyadhmou.org/., Paris Mou (2007), "Deficiencies per major category", Annual Report 2007 - Paris MoU on Port State Control, Month Date, pp.22-23., ?z?ayir, Z.O. (2004), "Practical Implication of Port State Control: The Contractual Effect of Port State Control Detentions". In Mitropoulos, E.E. Port State Control, 2nd ed, LLP, London, pp.509, 520-521., Taylor v Caldwell [1863] 122 ER 309, Owen, T. (2009), "Contract Law Concept", [LGT4016] Maritime Law Lecture Note, p.61., Texas Company v. Hogarth Shipping Corp (1921) 256 U.S. 619, Jackson v Union Marine Insurance Co (1874) L.R. 10 C.P. 125., Paris Mou (2009), The Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control. Deficiencies, detentions and rectifications. Available from: http://www.parismou.org/ParisMOU/Organisation/About+Us/Detention/xp/menu.3961/default.aspx [Accessed: March 11, 2009].

Friday, 28 June 2013

"International shore connection and Fire control plan"

???????????? fire fighting ??????????????????????? fire fighting ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????? portable fire fighting equipments ?????? fixed fire fighting equipment ??????? ?????????????????? ???????????? fixed fire fighting installation ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????????? fixed fire fighting installation ??????????????????? fire main system, automatic fire sprinkler system, foam installation system ?????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????? CO2 installation system ?????????????? 

????????? halon installation system ???? fixed fire fighting installation ??????? ????????????????????????? ???????? IMO ??? resolution MSC.27(61) air pollution prevention convention ??? (????) ???????? ????????? halon installation system ??????????????????????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? halon system ????????????? ???????????????? CFC free ???????? ???????? halon alternative ????????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????????

SOLAS Chapter II-2, Regulation 7 ??? output power (???) ???????? ????????????? ???????????? (???) ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? machinery spaces ?????? oil-fired boiler rooms, purifier rooms ??????? fixed fire fighting installation ???? ?????????????????? ???????????? ????????????? fixed fire fighting installation ????? water spray systems ??????????? fire sprinkler system, CO2 installation system ??? high expansion foam installation systems ????????? installation system (?) ????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????????????????

?????????????????? SOLAS Chapter II-2, Regulation 10 (equivalent standard: IMO - MSC/Circ. 668/728) ??? water mist systems, inside air high expansion foam systems ??? equivalent standard: IMO Circ. 776 ??? alternative gas extinguishing systems ?????????? fixed fire fighting installation ????????????????????????????????? ????????????????

fixed fire fighting installation ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? ????? ??????? pump ????? ?????????????????????? failure ????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? pump ??????? ??????????? international shore connection flange ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????????????????? international shore connection  flange ??? ??????????? fire line ??? ??????? flange ??????????????????????? ???????? ????????????????? SLOAS regulation ????? ????????????????


Fig. International shore connection flange

???????????? ???????? shore connection flange (?) ?????????????? ?????????????????? SOLAS Regulation ?? shore connection flange (?) ????? MARPOL Regulation ??? shore connection flange (?) ?????????? ?????????????????? SOLAS Regulation ?? FSS Code Chapter (2) International shore connections, paragraph 2.1 ?? ?????????????? shore connection flange ???  ?????????????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????

MARPOL Regulation ??? ?????????????? shore connection flanges ??????? MARPOL Annex I - Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil from Ships ??? ?????????????? shore connection flange ??? MARPOL Annex IV - Regulations for Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships ??? ?????????????? shore connection flange ???????? ??????????????????


Fig. Standard discharge flange for residues from machinery bilges from sludge tanks

MARPOL Annex I - Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil from Ships ??? ?????????????? shore connection flange ??? ????????????? MARPOL Annex I - Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil from Ships ??? Chapter (3) - Requirements for machinery spaces of all ships, Part (A) - Construction ??? Regulation (13) - Standard discharge connection ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? (?) ????????????????? ??????????????


Fig. Standard discharge flange for sewage

MARPOL Annex IV - Regulations for Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships ??? ?????????????? shore connection flange ??? ????????????????? Chapter (3) - Equipment and control of discharge, Regulation (10) - Standard discharge connections ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? (?) ????? ???????????? ?????????????? 


Fig. Fire Control Plan

international shore connection ?????????? mandatory requirement ??????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? SOLAS Chapter II-2, Regulation 15 ??? ????????????? Fire Control Plan ?????????? fire control plan ???? deck ????????????? fire station ???????? ??????????????????? ????????????? “A” class division enclosed space, “B” class division enclosed space ??? bulkheads ??????????? ????????????????????? fire detection system ??? fire fighting systems ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????? fire control plan ??????????????????? fire alarm systems, sprinkler installation, extinguishing appliances, compartments ??? decks ?????? ????????? escape ???? ventilation system dampers ?????? fans ?????? remote operation ???????? system ??? ??????????? ???????????????????????? 

fire control plan ???? ???????? main structure accommodation ??? ???????????? poop deck ????????? main deck ??? ??? ?? ????????????? port side ??? star board side ??? ????????? fire control plan safety container ?????? ????????????????????? ???????? main structure accommodation ???? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????? passage way ????????? corridor ???????????????? ??? bridge/ wheel hose ???????? engine control room/ engine room ????? ???????????????????????

fire control plan ??? ??????????????????????????? ????????????????? fire prevention and protection ????????? fire fighting ???? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????????? fire control plan ??????????????? ????????? information ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????


Reference and image credit to : Marine Auxiliary Machinery By Mc George 7th edition, 1995, http://www.seacurity.nl/., SOLAS Regulation, MARPOL Regulation.

Remark : All publications and images herein thiswebsite are for use of educational purpose only. The owner of this website is not responsible for the consequences in case of violation tocopyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights ofany third party.    

Thursday, 27 June 2013

"Fire main system - Fire hydrants, fire hoses, fire nozzles and Automatic fire sprinkler system"

SOLAS Regulation ??? GRT ???????? (?, ???) ????? ?????????? ????? passenger ship??????? independently driven fire pump  ?????????? ????????? (?) ????? GRT ???????? (?, ???) ????? ?????????? independently driven pump ?????????? ????????? (?) ???? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? cargo ship ?????????? GRT ???????? (?, ???) ???????? power driven pump ????????? independently driven pump ?????? ?????????? pump (?) ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? GRT ???????? (?, ???) ????? ????? cargo ship ?????? independently driven fire pump ?? ????????? (?) ???? ???????????? ????????????

main switch board ??? power ????? electric motor ?????????????????? pump ??? power driven pump ?????? ????????????? emergency switch board ???????? power ???????? electric motor ?????????????????? pump ???????? independently driven pump ?????? ???????????? engine ?????????????????? pump ???????? independently driven pump ?????? ?????????????


Fig. Fire main system

GRT ???????? (?, ???) ????? cargo ship ??????? emergency generator ???????????? ????????????? engine ?????????????????? independently driven fire pump (?) ???????????? ????????????? GRT ???????? (?, ???) ????? ????? cargo ship ?????????? emergency generator ?????????????? fire pump ???????? ?????????? power ???? main switch board ???????? emergency switch board ???????? independently driven fire pump ????????? ????????????????? ???????? GS pump ??? Bilge & Ballast pump ??????????? main fire line ??? ?????????? fire pump ????? ???????????????????

'Fire pump' ??? capacity ???? 'Bilge pump' ??? capacity ????? ????????????????????????????? ??????????????? passenger ship ??????? ????????????????? Fire pump ??? capacity ??? Bilge pump capacity ??? ?????????? ??????? (2/ 3) ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? cargo ship ??????? ????????????????? fire pump ?????? capacity ??? SOLAS Regulation Part 1, Chapter II-1, Construction - Structure, Subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installation, Regulation 21 - Bilge pump arrangement ??? ????????????? Bilge pump capacity ??? ????????? ??????? (3/ 4) ??? ?????????????? ????????????

???????? cargo ship ??????? ???????????????????? emergency fire pump ???????? fire pump ??? ????????????? capacity ?? 25 m3/hr ????????? 1500 m3/min ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? pump ???????? ????????? water jet (?) ???????? ????????????? ????????? pressure ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? fire hydrant ?????????????? ?? ??? pressure ??? GRT ???????? (?, ???) ??????????????? passenger ship ???????????? 0. 30 N/ mm2 ???????????? ???????? (?, ???) ????? ???? ?????????? passenger ship ???????????? 0. 40 N/ mm2 ????????? ????????????????? ???????????? cargo ship ?????????? ???????? (?, ???) ????????? 0. 25 N/ mm2 ???????????? ???????? (?, ???) ????? ??????? 0. 27 N/ mm2 ????????? ?????????????????

fire hose ??????? non-perishable ??????? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? synthetic rubber ????????? tetoron ???????? material ???????????????????????? fire hose ????????? ??? ?????????? diameter ???????? SOLAS regulation ????? ???????????  ?????????????????????????????? ????????????? Merchant Shipping Act ??? ?????????????????????  ???????????? (?) ??????? (?) ??????? diameter ???????????????? fire hose ?????? ????????????????

fire hydrant ??????????????? ??????????????????? fire hose ??? ??????? ???????????????????? fire hydrant ??????? ???????????? fire hose ??? ????????? ???????? fire hydrant ??????? ???????????????????????? SOLAS Regulation ??? ??????? (??) ?????????? ???? ???????????? passenger ship ?????? interior location ???? ????????? ?? ??????????? fire hose ???? ????????????????????????????? (??) ???? ?????????????????? fire hydrant ?????? ??????????????? ????????????

GRT ???????? (?, ???) ????? ????? cargo ship ??????? fire hose ??? ???????? ???? (??) ??????????? ??????????????? hose ??????????????? (?) ?? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? machinery space, interior space ??? open deck ?????????????????? hydrant ???????????? ????????? fire hose ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????? hose ????????????? ???????????? ??? spare hose ?????? ??????????????????? GTR ???????? (?, ???) ????????????? ????????? hose (?) ?????????? ???????????? 

fire hydrant ????????????? isolating valve ?????? ??????????????? hydrant ??? connection ??? ???????????? hose coupling ????? ?????????? hose coupling ??????? nozzles ??? connection type ???????? ??????????? ???????????? coupling ??? connection type ????????? Nakajama, Machino, John Morris, Nor, ANSI pin, ANSI slotter, French ??? Storz Type ??????????????

fire nozzles ???????????????? solid bore (or) smooth bore nozzle, single gallonage (or) variable pressure/ variable flow nozzle, adjustable gallonage nozzle, automatic (or) constant pressure nozzle ??? multi-purpose nozzle ???????? ??????????????????????? nozzle ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ????????? form ??????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? nozzles ????? ??????????????? main function (?) ????????? control flow, provide reach ??? crate shape ???????? ???????? ?????????????????? nozzle ???????? orifice ??? ????? flow ??? control ????????? ????? pressure ???? velocity ???????????????????????


Fig. Multipurpose  nozzle

??????????? ?????????????????????  ?????? strait steam ?????? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ????????????? heat adsorption capability ?????? ?????????????????????????? radiant heat protection ????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ????? spray ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? shape ????????? ??????????? form ???? nozzle ????? ??????????????????????????? ??????????????? solid bore nozzles ????????? jet type nozzles ??????? single gallonage nozzle ??????????? spray nozzle ????????? fog nozzle ??????? ?????????????????????? jet nozzle ??? spray nozzle ?????? ?????????? ????????????????????????? multi-purpose nozzles ???????? ????????????????

SOLAS regulation, Part 1, Chapter II-2 Construction - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction, Part C : Suppression of fire, Regulation 10.2.3.3.1 ???? 12mm, 16mm ??? 19mm diameter ???????????????? nozzles ?????????????????? ???????????????? ???????? accommodation ??? service space ??????? 12mm diameter ????????? nozzles ?????? ??????????????????? machinery space ??? exterior location ??????????? 12mm diameter ???????????? 19mm diameter ????????? ?????????? nozzles ?????? ??????????????????? 19mm diameter ???????????? ???????????????? nozzles ??????? ???????????????????? administration ??????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????? Merchant Shipping Act ??? ?????????????? ????????????

'Automatic fire sprinkler system' - ??????????????????????????? ????????????? fire detection system ??? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? fire protection ??? fire prevention ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????? fire fighting ???? ????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? fire main system ??? '??' ??? ?????????? ????????????????? foam, CO2 ???????? extinguishing system ??? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ??????? fire plan ???????????????? ??????????????? fire squid ?????? ????????? ?????????????????? response ????????????????????????? FFA ?????? fire fighting appliances ??????? ???????? ???????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????

????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????  ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????????? fire sprinkler system ??????? sensitive areas ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????? fire sprinkler system ??????? accommodation areas ???? machinery spaces ???? forecastle ??? bosun store ??????? area ?????? paint store area ?????? ??????????????

automatic fire sprinkler system ???? pressure water tank ???????? ?????????? compartments ?????? ????? piping ?????????????? sprinkler heads ?????????????? ?????????????????? water tank ???????????????? fresh water ?????????????????????  compressed air ??????? pressure ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????????? sprinkler head ???? ????????????? ???????????????? pressure tank ???? 4.8 bar ??? ?????????????? pressurized ???????????????????? ????????????

 

Fig. Automatic fire sprinkler system

sprinkler heads ?????? ????????????????????? area ?????????? section ????????????????????????? section ???????????? alarm system ??????? ?????????????????????? sprinkler heads ?????? ??????????? section ???????? sprinkler heads ????????? ????? (???) ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? sprinkler heads ??????? quartzoid bulbs ????????????? ??????????????? compartment ???? ??????????????????????? ????????????? limit ???????????????????????? quartzoid bulb ??? ???????????????? sprinkler head ??????? ????? ??????????????????


Fig. Sprinkler head 

quartzoid bulbs ??????? temperature limit ???? colour code ???????????????????????????? ???????? bulb ??? temperature limit ??? 68 deg C, ??????? bulb ??? temperature limit ??? 80 deg C ??? ??????????? bulb ??? temperature limit ??? 93 deg C ?????????? SOLAS Regulation ?? ????????????????? sprinkler head ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????????????  ????????????????

sprinkler head ???? semicircular ??????????????? quartzoid bulb ??????????????????? bulb ?????? expandable liquid ????????? ????????????????? deflector plate ?????????????? ???????????????????????? sprinkler head ??????? corrosion ?????????????? fresh water ????? ?????????????????? ????? pipeline ???? pressure ??????????????????? pressure ????????????? section ????? alarm ??????? ???????????????????????? pressure tank ????? ????????????????? sea water pump ??????? ?????????????? sea water pump ???????? ????????? ?????????????????????


Reference and image credit to : http://www.engarena.com/, http://soniachou.en.ecplaza.net., General Engineering Knowledge by H.D McGeorge, SOLAS Regulations., The Design and Layout of Fire Sprinkler Systems ByBromann, M, Oxfordshire: CRC Publications, 2nd edition, 2001,

Remark : All publications and images herein thiswebsite are for use of educational purpose only. The owner of this website is not responsible for the consequences in case of violation tocopyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights ofany third party.   

Sunday, 23 June 2013

"Fire Classes"

???????? ??????? engine room ??? fire prone area ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????? ????????? (???) ????????????????? ??????? engine room ????? ????????? ?????????? fuel consumption ?????? ??????? ??? (??) ????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? fuel oil storage tank, fuel oil service tank, diesel oil storage tank, diesel oil service tank, lubricating storage tank, lubricating oil service tank ??????????????????????? greases ???? chemicals ??????? ??????????????

HFO ??????????? heavy fuel oil ???????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? temperature 120 ~ 150 degrees Celsius ????? ??????????????????? fuel injection ????? high pressure pipes ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? pressure ????? 1200 bar ????????????? '????????' ???????? ???????? ??????? engine room ???? boiler ??? ????????????? garbage ?????? ??????????????? incinerator ??????????????????

'???????' ?????? combustible substance, '????' ?????? ignition ???  '??' ?????? supply of air ???? ??????????????????? '???????????' ???????????????  ????????????? combustible substance, ?????????? ignition ???  ???????? supply of air ??????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? (?) ?? ????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????

?????????? ??????????????? '???????' ?????????? '??' ??????? ????????? good house keeping ?????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? (?) ??????? '???????' ?????? combustible substance ???? ??????????????????????'????' ????????? '???????' ???? ?????????????? source of ignition ?????? material failure ?????????  insulation failure ??????????? '????' ????????? '???????' ???? ?????????????????????????? source of ignition ?????????????????????? human error ???????  '???????' ???? ???????????????????? source of ignition ????? ??????????????????

electric arc welding ??? gas-cutting ???????????????? source of ignition ?????????????????????????? hot work ?????????????????? hot work permit check list ?? procedure ??????? ??????????????????????????  exhaust manifold ?????? heated fuel piping ????? lagging ???????????? ????????????????????? hot spot ????????????? ????????????????? hot spot ????????????? high pressure pipelines ?? fuel ???? spilling ?????? ??????????????????????? ??????????????????? source of ignition ????? ??????????????????

????????? ?????????????????? oil vapors ?????? gas ?????????????????? butane lighters ????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? source of ignition ????? ?????????????????? maintenance ?????????? ????????????????????? material failure ???????????? main engine ???? source of ignition ??????? hot spot ??????? ????????????????????? main engine ??? hot spot ??????? crank case explosion ??? scavenge fire ?????????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ill-maintained ??? baldly maintained machinery ?????? source of ignition ????? ??????????????????

supply of air ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????? engine room ??? ??????????? blower fan ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????? supply of air ??? ??????????????????????

'Fire Classes' - ???????????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????? wood, paper, cloths ??????????? common combustible material ??????????  ???????????? ????????????????? 'Class A' fire ?????? ??????????????????????? flammable liquids ??????????? combustible material ??????????  ???????????? ???????????????? 'Class B' fire ?????? ??????????????????????? ??? flammable gas ??????????  ???????????? ????????????????? 'Class C' fire ?????? ???????????????????????

reactive chemicals ?????? active metals ???????????  ???????????? ???????????????????? 'Class D' fire ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? live electrical equipment ??????????  ???????????? ???????????????? 'Class E' fire ?????? ??????????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????????? vegetable oils, animal oil ?????? fats ??????????? cooking media ??????????  ???????????? ???????????????????? 'Class K' fire ?????? ???????????????????????

??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????? fire fighting ???? ??????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? fire extinguisher ??????  ????????????????????? ???????????????????? fire main ?????? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????  fire fighting ???? ?????????????????

'Fire extinguisher agents' - Class A fire ??????? combustible material ??????????  ????????????? ???????????????? ??? foam spray, ABC powder ??? wet chemical ???????? fire extinguisher agents ??? ??????????? ???????????????????? ABC powder ?? mono-ammonium phosphate ??????? ????????????? ???????? dry powder ?????????? mono-ammonium phosphate dry powder ??? Class A fire ?????????? ??????????????????? Class B fire ?????????????????? flammable liquids ??????????  ????????????? ???????????????? Class C fire  ?????????????????? flammable gas ??????????  ????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????????????? ??????????????????? "ABC powder" ??????? ??????? ???????????????

Class B fire ??????? flammable liquids ??????????  ????????????? ?????????????????????  foam ??? ABC powder ???????? fire extinguisher agents ?????????????? ???????????????????? foam ???? tri-methyltrimethylene glycol ??? hexylene glycol ??????? organic solvents ?????? ????????? '???????' ????????? amphiphilic organic compound ?? surfactants ????? ????????????????????? foam ???? class A foam ??? class B foam ??????? ????????????????? Class A foam ???? wildfires ??????? ???????????????????? ????????????? ????????????? Class B foam ???????? flammable liquids ??????????  ????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????

Class B foam agent ??? synthetic foams ??? protein foams ??????? ??????????????????? synthetic surfactants ??????? synthetic foams ?????? ??????????????? flow ??????????? flames knockdown ?????? ????????????????????????? ??????????????????? post-fire security ????????? ?????????? ??????????? synthetic foams ??????? aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) ??? alcohol-resistant aqueous film forming foams (AR-AFFF) ??????? ??????????????????? sodium alkyl sulfate ??? fluorosurfactant ???????? hydrocarbon-based surfactant ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? foams ??? ??????????????????????  aqueous film forming foams ?????? AFFF ??? ??????????

protein foams agent ????? natural proteins ??????? foaming agents ?????????????? ????????????? bio-degradable foam ????????????? flow ?????????????????? ?????????????? foam blanket ???????????????????????? 'spontaneous combustion' ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? post-fire security ??????????????? foams ????????????????????

regular protein foam ?????? (P), fluoroprotein foam ?????? (FP), film forming fluoroprotein ?????? (FFFP), alcohol resistant fluoroprotein foam ?????? (AR-FP) ??? alcohol-resistant film forming fluoroprotein ?????? (AR-FFFP) ?????? protein foam ????????????? natural proteins ?????????? biological contaminants ??????????? amyloid ???????? ???????????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? non-animal sources ?????????? ???????????? proteins ??????? ?????????????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ??????????????????

Class C fire ??????? flammable gas ??????????  ????????????? ????????????????????? ABC powder fire extinguisher agents ????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????

reactive chemicals ?????? active metals ???????????  ???????????? ???????????????????? 'Class D' fire ?????? ?????????????????????? metal fire ???????? ?????????? metal fire ?? magnesium, sodium, potassium ??? sodium-potassium alloys ????????????? ????????????????? hot spot ????????????????? reactive chemicals ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????

class D fire extinguisher agents ??????? sodium chloride based, copper based, graphite based, sodium carbonate based ??? water based suppressants ???????? ?????????????????? 'Class D' fire ???? ???????????? ??????????? class D fire extinguisher agents ??????? ?????????????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????????


Fig.  Sodium chloride based dry power class D fire extinguisher


sodium chloride based class D fire extinguisher agents ??????????? sodium chloride salt ??? ????????????? metal ???????? oxygen-excluding crust ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? alkali metal ?????????? sodium ??? potassium ?????????? ????? metal ?????????? magnesium, titanium, aluminum ??? zirconium ??????????? ????????????  ??????????????? ????????????????????

copper based class D fire extinguisher agents ??????? lithium ??? lithium-alloy ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? copper based class D fire extinguisher agents ?? powder smothers ???????????????? ????????????? metal ????????  heat sink ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????  ???????? copper-lithium alloy surface ??????????????????????????? oxygen supply ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? powder smothers ??????????????????? extinguish flowing ??????????????????? ???????????? extinguisher ??? ?????????????????????? ????????? ?????????? vertical surface ???????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????????

graphite-based class D fire extinguisher agents ??? dry graphite ???????????????? magnesium ??? lithium ???????????  ???????????????????????????  ??????????? hot burning metal ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? metal ????????  heat sink ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????????? dry graphite ????????? powder smothers ?????????????? extinguish flowing ??????????????????? ????????? ???????????? extinguisher ???? ??????????????????????? ????????? ???????????????????

sodium carbonate-based class D fire extinguisher agents ???  stainless steel piping ??? stainless steel equipments ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? water based suppressants class D fire extinguisher agents ?????????? titanium ??? magnesium ??????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? elemental lithium ?????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????????????? water based suppressants ????????????? extinguisher agents ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????????????

Class E fire ??????? ???????????????????? live electrical equipment ??????????  ???????????? ?????????????????  ABC powder ??? ????????????????????? CO2 ??? ??????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????? vegetable oils, animal oil ?????? fats ??????????? cooking media ??????????  ???????????? ????????????? 'Class K' fire ??????? wet chemical extinguisher agents ?????????????? ??????????????? 'Class K' fire ???????????????? wet chemical ??? foams ??????????????????? potassium acetate, potassium carbonate ????????? potassium citrate ??? ????????? ????????????????????  extinguisher agents ??????? antifreeze chemicals ?????????? ?????????????????????

"Fire main" - ?? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? fire pipeline ??????????????? fire hydrant ??????????? ????? ?????????? fire hydrants ???????? ?????????????????????? fire hose nozzles ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? fire hydrants ?????? hose ???????????? hose couplings ???????? ???????????????????????



Fig. fire hose couplings and hose nozzles

???????????? ??????????????????????? hose nozzle ?????????? type ???????? Machino type, Nikajima type, ANSI type, NOR type, John Morris type, NF type ??? Screw coupling type ?????????????? coupling ???????? Nakajama, Machino, John Morris, Nor, ANSI pin, ANSI slotter, French ??? Storz ?????????? ???????? ????????????????????


Fig. (A) Inner outer synthetic rubber lined fire hose, (B) Rubber lined tetoron fire hose and (C) Fire hydrant and fire hose box 

hose ?????? rubber lined tetoron ????????????? inner outer synthetic rubber lined ?????????? hose ?????????????????????? DWT ???????? (????) ??? ???????????????? ???? (??) ??????????????? fire hydrant ??? ?????????????????????????????? fire hydrant ??? ???????? ???? (??) ??????????? fire hose ???? coupling, nozzle ???????????????????????????? ??????????? hose box ????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????   ???????? ?????????? ???????????? fire hose set ???????????????? ???? (?) ??????? spare hose set ????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? 

fire line piping ???? hydrant valve ????????? isolating valve ???????? ??????????????? fire fighting ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? Fire & G.S pump ?????????????????? ????? ?????????????????????? Fire & G.S pump ???? ?????????????????????? Bilge & Ballast pump ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????? Emergency fire pump ??????? ???????????????

Remark : All publications and images herein thiswebsite are for use of educational purpose only. The owner of this website is not responsible for the consequences in case of violation tocopyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights ofany third party.  

Wednesday, 19 June 2013

"Fire detecting system sensors"

fire detection system ?????? ???????????????????????? fire alarm sensors ??????? ???????????????????????????? smoke detector ????????? photoelectric type sensor, ionization type sensor ??? combination type sensor ????????? combo detector, heat detectors ????????? fixed or rate compensated sensor ??? rate of rise sensor, optical flame detectors ????????? ultraviolet (UV) sensitive sensor ??? infrared (IR) sensitive sensor ??????? ????????????????? acoustic fire detector ???????????????????????

??????? 'Fire detection system' ??? master control panel ???? bridge ?????? wheel house ??? ???????????????????? auxiliary panels ??????????? repeater panels ??????????? engine control room ??? fire control station ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????????????  fire detector sensors ?????? ??????????????????? smoke detector sensor, heat detector sensor ??? infrared flames detector sensor ??????????? ??????????????? 


Fig. Fire detecting system

smoke detectors sensors ??????? engine control room ??? engine room ???????????????????? ??????????????????????? work shop, boiler, incinerator ??? fuel handling units ??? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? work shop ??????? hot work area ???????????? welding works ??????? ???????????????????? smoke ??? neck flame ??? ??????????????????????? smoke detector sensor ??? flame detector sensor ???????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? heat detector sensor ???????? ?????????????? fuel handling unit ????????????? purifier, oil heater ???????? ??????? ??????????????? flame detector sensor ??????? ????????????????????

boiler ??? incinerator ?????? abnormal condition ?????????????? neck flame ???????????????????????? infrared flame sensor ????????? ionization type smoke detector sensor ????????? boiler ??? incinerator ??????????????? ??????????????????????

'Smoke detectors' - ??????? Photoelectric smoke detector sensor ??? Ionization smoke detector sensor ??????? ????????????????? Photo electric smoke detector sensor ??????? Light scattering smoke detector sensor ??? Light obscuring smoke detector sensor ??????????? ???????????????????????

photoelectric smoke detector sensor ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? low sensitivity detector ????????????? false alarm ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????????? chamber ??? ??????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? photo cell ?? ?????????????????? smoke ????? ?????????? ????????????? thick smoke ?????????????????????? detector ???????????????????


Fig. Photo electric smoke detector

low energy fire ???????????????????????????? photo electric smoke detectors ??????????????????????????? low energy fire ??????????? ???????? flame ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? thick smoke ?????? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? engine room ?? engine control room, accommodation ?? passage ways ???? air cond' room, bridge ??? cargo control room ??????????????????? ???????????????????????????? 

'Light scattering smoke detector' - ??????? light sensing type smoke detector ??????????? ??????????????? fog ?????? ???????????? ????????? haze ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ????????? light beam ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? water vapour ?????? steam ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????????? light beam ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? light beam ???? ???????????????? ?????????????????????

light sensing type detector ????????????? sensor ??? chamber ?????????? ??????????????????????????? scattering ??????????????????? smoke particle ?????????? light beam ???????????????????????????????????? ??????? light beam ??????????????????? photo cell ??? activated ????????????? trigger circuit ???? ????????????????? Light sensing photoelectric smoke detectors ?????? scatter light ??? ??????????????? small airborne particles ???????? ????????? ???????????????????????? light scattering ?? absorption, reflection, refraction, polarization ??? diffraction ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? electromagnetic radiation ??????? ??????????? ???????????????????? 


Fig. Light scattering type photoelectric smoke detector

chamber ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? light source ?? ?????????????????????????? photo-electric sensor ????????? photo cell ??? detect ??????????????????? smoke particles ???????????????????? light scattering ??????????????? photo cell ?????? detect ??????????  particles ??? ??????????????????????? concentration ????????????? scattering ??? ????????????? trigger circuit ???? activate ???????????????? light beam ??? wavelength, light intensity ??? scattering angle ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????? smoke particles ?????? refractive index, shape, reflectance ??? concentration ??????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????????? 

light scattering ?????????????? ?????????????????????? 'Rayleigh type' ??? 'Mie type' ???????? ??????????????? particle size ??? lighting source ?? ??????????? wavelength ???????????? light scattering ??????????????? 'Rayleigh type scattering' ?????????????? ????????? light beam ??? ???????? light beam ??? light scattering ??????????? ??????????????????

Light scattering type photo-electric smoke detector ???????  ?????????????? scattering ?????????????????????? ???????? light beam ????? ???????????????? Mie type scattering ??? particles ?????? ???????????????? thickness ?????? ????????? ???????????????????? Photoelectric smoke detector ?????? Mie type scattering ?????? detect ???????????????????

photoelectric smoke detectors ??????? near-infrared (IR) light-emitting diode (LED) ??????? ?????????????????????? Silicon photo-diodes ?????? 880 nm ??? 940 nm wavelength range ?????? ???????????????? near-infrared (IR) light-emitting diode (LED) ??? LED ????????????? photoelectric smoke detectors ??????? light sources ????????? laser rays ??????????? ??????????????????????

Pinnacle laser detectors ?????? laser rays ????????????????? photoelectric smoke detectors ????????????? LED type smoke detectors ?????? ???????? Laser smoke detector ?????? higher sensitivity detector ???????????? signal noise ratio ??????????????????? ??????????????? semiconductor manufacturing plant ???????????????? ?????? ??????????????????????

'Light obscuring smoke detectors' - ??????? projected beam photoelectric smoke detectors ????????????????????? near-infrared (IR) light-emitting diode (LED) ?????? laser rays ??????? light sources ???????? ?????????????? emitter ??? detector ??????? ???? (???) ???????? ?????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????


Fig. Light obscuring type photoelectric smoke detector

Photoelectric smoke detectors ????? ????????????? ?????????????? smoke particles ??? ??????????????????????????? slow ??? smoldering fires ???? low energy fire ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????? Photoelectric smoke detectors ?????? detector sensitivity ???? 'obscuration level percentage % / Length'  ??????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????

United States ??? Industry standards ???? early alert warning level ???? 0.2% / Ft ??? full-blown alarm level ???? 3% / Ft ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ????????? passage way ????????? ally way ???? ??????????????????????????? 2.5%/ft obscuration level ?????? 2.5 %/ Ft ???????????????? ?????????? trigger circuit ???? activate ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????

?????????????????????? photo electric smoke detector ????????????????? ????????????????????? container ??????????? Cargo hold smoke detecting system ?????? 'Aspirated smoke detectors' ?????? Livestock carrier ??????????? ??????????????????????? Car carrier ??????????? HAVC Duct ?????? ??????????? 'duct detectors' ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? Aspirated smoke detectors ??????? ??????????? (????) ???????? designated fire zone ?????? ????????????????????? computer rooms, clean rooms, control rooms, operating theaters ??? ??? TV/ Radio studios ???????????????????????????? ???????? electronic racks, telephone exchanges, cable tunnels, power generators, transformer halls, broadcasting transmitters ?????? switchboards ?????????? ?????????????????????? Duct work smoke detectors ??????????? laboratories, offices, supermarkets, hospitals, institutions, libraries, museums, art galleries, studios ?????? theater ?????? ???? train ?????? ??????????????????????

Ionization smoke detectors - low energy fire ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????? detect ??????? Light scattering smoke detector ?????? Light obscuring smoke detectors ?????? ??????????????? high energy fire ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????????? Ionization smoke detectors ???????????????????


Fig. (A) Low energy fire and (B) High energy fire 

Ionization smoke detectors ?????? radioactive material ???????????? ???????? plate (?) ?? ????????? ?????????????????? plate (?) ?????? atmosphere ???? radioactive material ??? ionization ??????????????? current flow ????????????? ????????????????????????? plate (?) ??????????? ??????????????????? ????????????????? smoke particles ?????????? ???? ionization ?????????????? atmosphere ?? neutralized ????????????? ???????????????????? current flow ??????????? ????????????????

 

Fig. Ionization smoke detector

positive charge ??? negative charge plate (?) ????? ????????? (??) ???????? ????????????? (?) ????????? ??????????????? chamber ????????? ????????????? ionization chamber ?????????????? dc voltage ??????? ??????? plate (?) ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? radioactive material ??????????? Alpha source ??? Alpha particles ?????? ??????????????? Alpha source ?????? americium-241 ???? ?????????? ???? (????) ???? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????? alpha particles ????????? helium nuclei ???? ionizing radiation source ????? ???????????????? ??????????

alpha particles ?????????? chamber ????? oxygen ??? nitrogen atoms ??????? ionization ??????????????? positive charged ???????? oxygen atoms ?????? nitrogen atoms ??????? negative plate ? ??????????? ?????????????? electrons ??????????? positive plate ?????????????? positive plate ???? ????????? current flow ?????????? ????????????? smoke particles ??? chamber ?????????? ????????????????? ions ?????? ?????????????? neutralize ???????????????? neutralize ?????????????????????? positive plate ??? current ?? negative plate ???? ???????????????? potential difference ?????? voltage ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????? voltage ???? ?????????????????? trigger circuit ???? activated ???????????????? ??? ?????????????????? photoelectric sensor ??? ionization detector ?????? ???????????? 'Combination smoke detectors' ??????? ??????????????????

'Ionization smoke detectors ??? Americium' - americium (isotope Am-241) ???? ?????????????????? Glenn Seaborg ??????? ??????????????????????? Nuclear Chemist ????? (????) ????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? Americium ??? ???????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? man made metal ???????????? ???????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? radio active metal ?????????????????????? ????????????? nuclear reactors ?????? nuclear detonation ??????? plutonium atoms ?????? neutrons ?????????????????????? ????????? ???????????? silver-white crystalline metal ???????????? ?????????? 

americium ??????? ???????? radio active isotope ???????????????? ??????????????????? radio active isotope AM 241 ?????? ??????????????? AM 241 ??? primarily emitting ??????? alpha particles ???????? gamma rays ???????? ????????????????   ???????? AM 241 ??? beryllium mixture ???????????????? neutrons ??????????? ?????????????????????  AM 241 ??? ????????????????????? ????????????? half-life ??? ??????? ?????????????? (???. ?) ???????? ????????????? radio active decays process ???? alpha ??? gamma rays ?????? ??????????????? neptunium 237 ?????? ???????????????????? radio active radiation ???????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????? bismuth 209 ???????????????????? non-radio active element ?????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????????


Fig. Ionization smoke detector with  AM 241

AM 241 ???? ionization smoke detectors ????????? ??????????????????????????? gamma rays ???? ????????????????????? ?????????????????? medical diagnostic devices ???? fluid-density gauges ???? air craft fuel gauges ???? distance-sensing devices ?????? ? NDT ?????? non-destructive testing devices ????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ionization smoke detectors ?????? NDT testing equipments ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????? ???? ???????????????????? radio active material ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? 

ionization smoke detectors ?????????????????? radioactivity symbol ??? radioactivity amount ???????? ??????????????????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ionization smoke detectors ????????? AM 241 ??? americium dioxide ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? 0.29 micrograms ?????????? ????????? radioactivity ????????????? ????????????????????????????????? radiation ?????????? 1 ?Ci ?????????????????

radio active material ??? ??????????????????????? ??????????? safety gear ????????????????? ionization smoke detectors ?????? thickness measurement equipment ???????? testing equipments ??????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????????? incinerator ????? ????????? ????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? instruction ????? ??????????????? ????????? spare Ionization smoke detectors ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????? detectors ??????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????????

'Dual chamber ionization smoke detector' - ionization ?? ????? neutral ????????????? positive charge ????????? negative charge ?????????? air molecules ??? ????????? atoms ???????? electron ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????????? electron ??? ???????????????????? molecule ????????? atom ??? (+) positive charge ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? electron ????? ( - ) negative charge ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? air molecules ??????? ionization ????????????????

??????? ironic current ?? pico-amp ??????????????????? chamber ??????????? air molecules  ??????????????????????????? ironic current ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ambient temperature ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? chamber ??????????? smoke particles ??? ????????????????? particles ??????????????????? ironic current ?????????? ??????????????????????? ionizing ability ?????? Linear Energy Transfer (LET) ??? Quality Factor (QF) ???????? characteristics ???????? ????????????????????

air molecules ???????? electron ??? ??????????????? Alpha particles ?????????????? beta particles ?????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ??????????? heating, Electro-magnetic radiation ?????????????????? Ultraviolet ray ????????? X ray ??? ???????????? ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????? beta particles ?????? ??????????????? ionizing ability ?? alpha particles ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? beta particles ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????

ionization smoke detection system ?? 0.01 ~ 0.4 micron ?????????????????? combustion particles ??????? detect ?????????????? fast burning ?????? ???????????????????????????????? flaming fire ?????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????? photo-electric smoke detection system ?????? 0.4 ~ 10.0 micron ????? ???????????????? combustion particles ????????? detect ?????????????? slow burning ?????? ??????????????????????????????? smoldering fire ?????? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????? 

fast burning ??? flaming fire ????????? slow burning ??? smoldering fire ???????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????????? detector ???????????? ionization smoke detection system ??? photo-electric smoke detection system ??????????????????????????????? combination smoke detectors ??????? ????????????????? ???????? sensitive ?????????????????? ???????? engine room ???????????????????????? false alarm ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? engine room ??? ????????????????? ???????????????? ionization smoke detector ?????? dual chamber ionization smoke detector ????????????????????

dual chamber ionization smoke detector ????  large hole opening chamber ??? tinny holes opening chamber ???????? chamber (?) ?????????? large hole opening chamber ???? sensing chamber ????????????????????? tinny hole opening chamber ??????? reference chamber ????? ????????????????? ambient air ??? sensing chamber ?????????? ???????????????????? reference chamber ?????? air molecules ?????? water vapor ?????????? ?????????????? tinny hole ??????? ????????????????? tinny hole ?? smoke particles ??????????????????????? ???????????? reference chamber ??? ionization current ?????????? ?????????????? current ?????????? humidity ??? barometric pressure ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????


Fig.  Dual chamber ionization smoke detector

sensing chamber ??????????? ambient air ?????????????????????? ionization current ?????????? reference chamber ??? ionization current ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? trigger circuit ???? activated ?????????????????????? ????? smoke particles ??? ????????? combustion products ???? sensing chamber ?????????? ??????????????????? ionization current ??????????????? ??? reference ?????????? ????????????????? trigger circuit ??? activated ????????????????

smoke detectors ?????? false alarm ???????????????????? false alarm ??????????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? dust ???? steam ???? fibers ????? detectors ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? non-smoke phenomena ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ???????? false alarm ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????????? welding smoke ??????????? ????????????? nuisance alarm ??????? ????????????????? 

'Heat detectors' -  ??????? ??????????????????????????? rate-of-rise detectors ?????? fixed ????????? rate compensated detectors ??? ???????? ??????????????? ROR ?????? Rate-of-rise heat detectors ?????? normal baseline condition ??????????? ambient temperature ???? ???????? temperature ???????????????????????????? trigger circuit ???? activated ?????????????? detectors ??????????????????????? ROR heat detectors ?????? ????????? 6.7° to 8.3° C ????? ????????? 12° to 15° F ????????? ???????????? temperature ???????????????????? detect ??????????????? temperature ?????????????? ????????? 6.7° to 8.3° C ???????? ???????????? trigger circuit ???? activated ????????????????


Fig. (A) Rate-of-rise heat detector and (B) Rate compensated heat detectors

low energy fire ??????? temperature ???????? ???????? ??????????????????? ??????????????????? ROR ?????? ????????????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? fast burning ??? flaming fire ???? ?????????????? ??????????????? paint store ??? chemical store ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? 

fixed ????????? rate compensated heat detectors ??????????? hot work area ???????? ??????? work shop ??????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????? eutectic alloy ?????? heat sensitive element metal ???? sensor ????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? temperature setting ??????? ??????????????????? trigger circuit ???? activated ???????????????? heat detectors ??????? alarm activated temperature setting ???? 58° C ????????? 136.4°F ??? ?????? Heat detectors ?????????? 47° C ????????? 117° F ???? ???????????????????????

'Flame detectors' - ????????? ultraviolet (UV) sensitive sensor ??? infrared (IR) sensitive sensor ???????? ???????????? detectors ?????????? (?) ????? ??????????? ???????????????????????????????? flame ???? detect ?????????? combustible material ??????????????? ?????????? detectors ?????? ????????????????????????????? ???????????????? combustible material ??? flame ??????? smoke ????? ??????????? materiel ??????????????????????? ultraviolet (UV) sensitive type flame detectors ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? smoke particles ??????????? light scattering ??????????????????? UV ray ???? block ?????? ???????????????????????


Fig. Infrared (IR) Sensitive type flame detector

??????? boiler ??? incinerator ?????? abnormal condition ?????????????? neck flame ???????????????????????? infrared flame detectors ?????? ??????????????? oil burning unit area ?????????? purifier space ??? oil heater area ??????????? infrared flame detectors ???????? ?????? ????????????????

'SOLAS regulation and Fire Detection System' - 'SOLAS regulation Chapter II-2, Construction - Fire protection, detection, extinction, Regulation 7. 5. 1' ???????? accommodation spaces ?????? ??????????? stair ways, corridors ??? escape routes ??????????? smoke detectors ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? 

???????? Regulation 7.5.2,. 7.5.3, 5.4, ??? Regulation 6 ???????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? Regulation 7 ???????? Manually operated call points ??????? ?????? ??? ???? (??) ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????

??????????? Fire Detection ??? Fire Protection ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? FSS Code ???????????? International Code for Fire Safety Systems ???????????? FSS Code ??? IMO ??? SOLAS Regulation, Chapter II-2, 1974 Convention ??? Fire safety system & equipment required ??? MSC ??????????? Marine Safety Committee ??? ??????????????????????

FSS Code ??? Chapter 9 - Fixed fire detection and fire alarm system ??? Regulation.2, Engineering specifications, Sub-title 2. 2??? Fire detection system ?????? normal power supply ???? emergencypower supply ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? Sub title 2. 3 ??????? detectors ?????? ????????? component requirements ??????????? ?????? ?????????

Sub title 2. 3. 1. 2????????????????????? smokedetectors ?????? ?????????????? smoke density 12.5 % obstruction permeter ??? ???????????? activited ????????????? ??????????????? Sub title 2. 3. 1. 3 ??? heatdetectors ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ROR heat detectors ?????? 1 Deg. C per minutes ???????? ???????temperature ??????????????? ??? detect ?????????????????????? ratecompensated heat detectors ???????? ??????????????? ambient temperature ??? 54 °C ????????? ????????????? alarm activated temperature ??? 54 °C??????? ????????????????

Sub title 2.4.2.2 ??? Position of detectors ???????? maximum floor area ?????? smoke detector ??????? (??) ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? heat detector ?????????? (??) ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? maximum distance ?????????????? smoke detector ??????? ???????? ????? (?) ??????? ?????????????????? heat detector ??????????? (??) ??????? ??????????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? maximum distance away from bulkheads ???????? smoke detector ?????? ??????? ????????? (?) ??????? ??????????? head detectors ?????? ??????? ????????? (?) ??????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ????????????????
 
Fire detection & Prevention System ???? Safety Equipments ???????????????????????? International Convention For the Safety Of Life At Sea, 1974 as modified by Protocol of 1988 ??? Classification Societies ????? ???????????? ??????? statutory certificate ?????????????? Safety Equipment Certificate ??? ??????????????? 

Safety Equipment Certificate ???????????? Form "E" ?????? Classed approved Safety Equipment Check List ?????????? ????????? ??????????????????? Safety Equipment Survey ????????? ?????????????????? SOLAS Chapter II-2, Part E - Operational requirements ?????????? Regulation 14 - Operational readiness and maintenance ???? Regulation 14.1.1 ??? fire protection systems ?????? fire-fighting systems/ fire protection systems ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????????????????????? Regulation 14.1.2 ???????? ??????? ??????????????????????? ????????????????

???????? IMO ??????????????? International Safety Management ISM Code ??? Critical Equipment ????????? ???????????????? Critical Equipment ????????????? ISM Audit ???????? ?????????????? SMM ?????? Safety Management Manual ???????????????????????? Fire detection & Prevention System ??????? ??????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? regular inspection & maintenance ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????????  



Reference and image credit to : http://extension.missouri.edu.,  http://www.firetronics.com.sg., http://www.sas.or., SOLAS Regulation., FSS Code - International Code for Fire Safety Systems.,  http://www.googlelunarxprize.org, www.element-collection.com

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